Title:Biomarkers of metabolic syndrome in male cigarette smokers in Calabar, Southern Nigeria

Author:Uwen Okon Akpan and Iva Eze Bassey

Abstract:Background: Metabolic syndrome has recently attracted much attention due to increasing knowledge of its relationship with cardiovascular mortality, morbidity and other conditions.
Objective: This study assessed the biomarkers and frequency of metabolic syndrome in adult male smokers. Methods: 141 apparently healthy male cigarette smokers and 60 apparently healthy non-smokers aged 18 to 65 years were recruited for the study. The smokers were classified as light, moderate or heavy smokers. Anthropometric indices, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile and serum insulin were measured. Insulin resistance was calculated using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Data was analysed using SPSS version 20.0; p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: The smokers had significantly higher diastolic blood pressure (p=0.0001), Total cholesterol (p=0.008) and LDL-C (p=0.0001) and significantly lower HDL-C (p = 0.0001), compared to the controls. The frequency of smokers with metabolic syndrome was significantly higher than non-smokers using the Adult Treatment Panel III (p=0.032) criteria with dyslipidemia being the most prevalent metabolic risk factor.
Conclusions: The unfavorable changes in the lipid profile and blood pressure observed in this study may predispose smokers to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and there is a higher frequency of metabolic syndrome among smokers in Calabar compared to the non-smokers.
Keywords: Metabolic syndrome; cigarette smoking; dyslipidemia.
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